Strategy 1: Setting Objectives
Setting objectives is used to establish and communicate learning goals. Setting objectives helps students understand the purpose for their learning. It also provides clear direction for instruction and expectations for meeting the learning target. Setting objectives guides students through the learning process. It helps them make connections between the learning activities and how they apply to what they are expected to learn.
Key Research Findings:
- Setting Objectives includes setting and communicating learning goals (Marzano, 2007, p. 9).
- Goal setting establishes an initial target (Marzano, 2007, p. 12).
Recommendations for Setting Objectives (Dean, Hubble, Pitler, & Stone, 2012, p. 5):
- Set learning objectives that are specific but not restrictive: Provide detail about what the students must be able to do (Dean et al., 2012, p. 6).
- Communicate the learning objectives to students and parents: State objectives verbally and in writing so students know what they need to focus on and so parents can engage in conversation with their children about what they are learning (Dean et al., 2012, p. 7).
- Connect the learning objectives to previous and future learning: Students should see correlation from prior learning and how it will be useful in the future (Dean et al., 2012, p. 8).
- Engage students in setting personal learning objectives: Personalizing learning objectives increases student motivation (Dean et al., 2012, p. 9).
- Establish the difference between learning goals and learning activities. Activities are things students do. Learning goals are statements of what students will know or be able to do (Marzano, 2007, p. 17).
Learning goals might be stated:
-Students will understand:
-Students will be able to:
- Write a rubric or scale for each learning goal. This gives students descriptions of each level of understanding so they know what performance is needed to reach the learning target (Marzano, 2007, p. 19, 23).
- Have students write their own learning goals. This increases their motivation to deeper their understanding of the learning goal because they are connecting it to something that interests them (Marzano, 2007, p. 23).
Other ideas for implementation:
- Use contracts to encourage students to set and reach goals.
- Use rubrics/scales so students can see levels of understanding of the learning target.
- Use KWL charts to connect prior knowledge to new learning.
- Have students write about the learning objectives and their level of understanding.
Ceri B., D., Hubbell, E.R., Pitler, H., & Stone, B. (2012). Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement (2nd ed.). Denver: Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning.
Marzano, R. (2007). Art and Science of Teaching. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.