Strategy 2: Providing Feedback
Feedback and formative assessment are used to guide student progress towards understanding of the learning objective. Teachers should provide feedback that help students improve their understanding of the learning objective. Feedback helps students make a connection between the learning activities and the learning objective. Students should track their progress and student growth should be celebrated.
Key Research Findings:
Providing Feedback includes (Marzano, 2007, p. 9):
- Tracking student progress
- Celebrating success
- Feedback- provides students with information regarding their progress toward the target (Marzano, 2007, p. 12).
- Formative Assessment- used to track student progress (Marzano, 2007, p. 12).
- Reinforcing effort and providing recognition. Students can see a direct relationship between how hard they work and how much they learn (Marzano, 2007, p. 14).
Recommendations for Providing Feedback (Dean et al., 2012, p.11):
- Provide feedback that addresses what is correct and elaborates on what students need to do next.
- Provide timely feedback to meet students’ needs.
- Reference criterion.
- Engage students in feedback process.
- Use formative assessment. This is assessment used throughout the learning so students can see their progress and teachers can adjust their instruction (Marzano, 2007, p. 24).
- Have students chart their progress. Students are able to see their progress towards the learning target (Marzano, 2007, p. 25).
- Celebrate Success. Recognize growth over time so students develop motivation to continue to improve (Marzano, 2007, p. 26, 27).
- Provide students with opportunities for self- and peer assessment so they can reflect on their own learning (Dean et al., 2012, p.17)
- Provide students with feedback throughout instruction (Dean et al., 2012, p.19).
- After providing students with feedback, provide opportunities for them to continue working on the task until they succeed (Dean et al., 2012, p.19).
- Use contracts to encourage students to set and reach goals.
- Use rubrics/scales so students can see levels of understanding of the learning target.
- Give certificates/rewards for positive effort and growth over time.
- Use graphic organizers to have student’s assess their own work and to receive feedback from their peers and teachers.
- Use technology to organize and provide feedback.
Ceri B., D., Hubbell, E.R., Pitler, H., & Stone, B. (2012). Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement (2nd ed.). Denver: Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning.
Robert, M. (2007). Art and Science of Teaching. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.